This week was world penguin day and to celebrate, I thought what better to write about than New Zealand’s own yellow-eyed penguin or hoiho.
You may recognise these guys from the reverse side of the New Zealand five dollar note, but did you know that the hoiho was once the rarest species of penguin in the world? While the title is now taken by the Galapagos penguin, there’s still cause for concern when it comes to conserving the yellow-eyed penguin.
It is estimated that there are just 4000 remaining, 1200 of which are found in the Sub-Antarctic Islands – specifically Campbell Island and the Auckland Islands. On the mainland, they are confined to the south-eastern coast of New Zealand and Stewart Island.
They’re by far the most skittish species of penguin I have met and on the odd occasion that you do see one, it will be waddling clumsily to the nearest patch of vegetation in order to hide from people, predators, and even other penguins.
Their lack of agility on land has caused population numbers to decline drastically since the introduction of mammals to Aotearoa. While they are adapted to avoiding predators in the ocean while foraging for squid and fish, they are unable to defend themselves from predators such as cats, rats, stoats, and dogs.
Farming and the removal of vegetation along coast-lines has further threatened this species, as it significantly reduces sheltered spots that penguins would usually use for safe and successful nesting spots when breeding.
Humans love penguins, and a number of organisations have an active role in conserving the species with the intention of bringing the hoiho back from the brink of extinction. The Yellow-Eyed Penguin Trust actively restores penguin habitat, controls pest numbers around known breeding areas, educates the public, and has an active hand in scientific research.
I would highly recommend taking a look at their website to find out how you can get involved in the conservation of this highly threatened species. They have a range of options for anyone who wants to help out including working at coastal restoration days, volunteering as a ranger, helping with administration, or donating to the project.
So the next time you are holding a five dollar note, turn it over and spare a thought for the plight of this plucky penguin!